NEW WORDS IN SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES : FORMATION AND MEANING

The most productive contribution till today on language change is internet website such as commercial website, personal website, organizational website, educational website, entertainment website, news website, blog, hybrid website, etc. Many websites are a mixture of types and the most popular today is social networks sites.

A. Background of Research

English has been evolved and developed continually since hundreds years ago. That is exact with the theory, languages change in the course of time (Bloomfield, 1933: 13), the process of change is dramatically over a long period of time. None of these processes of change happened overnight, languages change dramatically over a long period. The products of English development are namely Old English, Middle English, and Modern English. For Modern English, many of language change influenced by technology. Vocabulary, morphology, syntax and semantics are influenced.

The most productive contribution till today on language change is internet website such as commercial website, personal website, organizational website, educational website, entertainment website, news website, blog, hybrid website, etc. Many websites are a mixture of types and the most popular today is social networks sites.

The contribution of this kind site not only appears in politics and economy, but also appear in social context; and in this paper is language change peculiar. Nowadays, social networking sites (SNSs) such as Facebook, MySpace, Twitter, LinkedIn, which have been attracted millions of users, has contributed new words in English. Moreover, SNSs is new phenomena in language because their appearing brings implications of form, meaning, and use of certain words.

The word ‘facebook’, for example, is new word which popular and spread widely after its popularity around the world. Taking a look at some examples from Keep Up-to-Date (BBC’s language leraning program) released, the word ‘facebook’ is formed from noun to verb. According to definition of word and verb, it is noun because it is a word that refers to a thing, and verb because it expresses an action, an event, or a state. On the verb form it has at least three forms. Each form has its own meaning depends on place of use.

Explaining the meaning of the word, its can be seen in a structure such as “I’ve just facebooked the photos from my summer holiday.”. In this structure the form of ‘facebook’ means ‘uploaded the photos to my facebook page‘; in other structures, ‘facebook’ has also different meaning, i.e. “I facebooked that guy John and it turns out he’s an architect.”means ‘looked him up in Facebook’; “Did you facebook Susan about the party?” means ‘contact Susan through her Facebook page’. As we have a look, in fact, or at least trend phenomena, ‘facebook’ is a pretty versatile word, and we could say the same about ‘myspace’, ‘tweet’ (from twitter) which we will find being used in much the same way all over the Net.

On the other form, while we are ‘facebooking’ or ‘myspacing’ we may also find ourself ‘commenting’ (writing a comment on someone’s Facebook or MySpace page), as in this example: “I commented Ahmad’s that he should come to the masjid on Friday.” Anyway, “I haven’t facebooked yet today and there’s sure to be a lot to catch up on!“. Beside ‘(to) facebook’, there are new other words appear in social networking such as ‘to tweet’, ‘to ebully’, ‘to unfriend’, ‘to defriend’, ‘to post’, etc. The point of this small tale that, when we look closely English had no difficulty coping with the new words; facebook, facebooking or facebooked. That is, English can very quickly understand a new word and accept the use of different forms of that new word. This ability must derive in part from the fact that there is a lot of regularity in the word-formation processes in English language.

In line with previous researches, there are many researches about new words. A research about new words was finished by Abdul Gofur (2007), for instance, on his conclusion, which focused on neologism in literary works, prove that many of new words come also from literary works. In Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secret, for example, come some new words, such as muggle, polyjuice, mudblood, cleansweep, herbology, etc. Concluding this research, I view that this research only investigate new words in literary works.

Browsing world-wide-web about new words in social networking, I found researches related research. Seen at 348 finished researches about social networking, I conclude that finished researches only investigate social networking about its development, consequences to the context of economy, politic, social, etc. Shortly before closing, unexpectedly meet up with an article released by Cardinal New Media, 20 Social Networking Vocabulary Words for ESL Students. This article talks about social networking at its portion and in the next portion it talks new words in social networking. However, I make up this article only describes the definition of new words in social networking.

Meeting with nothing about research investigates new words in social networking I address a research that will explore about new words in social networking. Then, given the conclusions of researches above in this research I propose a research focused on new words which come from social networking, especially its form and meaning.

B. Statement of Problem

The problem which will be investigated is new words which appear first in social network sites. The form and meaning are main variables in this research. It is likely to be said that I will base the research on descriptive linguistics theory to analyze this problem.

To restrict in order to focus on research, so, the inquiry would be guided by the following general question, namely :

  1. How are new words in social networking sites formed/created?

  2. What are the meaning of new words?

C. Purpose and Significance of Research

This research attempts to make some documentation of new words which produced from morphological process. For that reason, I am generally interested in finding out the formation of new words. This research also addressed to identify,recognizing the new words in English which appear in social networking sites, and to validate, proving theory that theory is applicable and workable.

In line with purpose of research explained above, I figure that the significance of this research is this research expected able to contribute especially in morphological analysis. By this research, it can be used for vocabulary building, English mastering and keep-up-to-date new words in English.

This study also expected as an additional reference for those, either student, lecturer, researcher, or whoever, interested in the same subject of morphological analysis especially in word-formation.

D. Conceptual Framework

Language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols used for human communication (Trager (1949); Barber (1964:21); de Saussure (1966:16); Bolinger (1975:15); Wardhaugh (1977:3) in Abdul Chaer (2007:32)). The science of language is linguistics. In the research field, linguistics defined as an empirical science dealing with observed phenomena and grammar deals with particular part of these (Robins, 1968 : 182).

Language reconstituted and reconstructed by every speaker anew in every generation (Sciffman, 1996:9). So, it is no secret that languages change in the course of time (Bloomfield, 1933:13) and of course, it happen on all living languages (Fromkin and Rodman, 1974: 499). There are indications of change, among them is new words. A great deal of new words (in social networking) awaken us up that language is not stand still (Finegan, 1979 : 258).

This research will assume two categories as result. First, Finegan (1979:157) stated that the purpose of linguistics is explaining precisely how language are structured and used, at this point what I can envision is this research will investigate the word-formation processes and use. Second, Rodman (2002:83) stated that the knowledge of morphology includes knowledge of individual morphemes, their pronunciation, and their meaning. The point of the statement is this research will investigate the meaning of new word. For short, I would like to explore about formation and meaning of new words which appear in social network sites; the view of meaning is relative to the place of use, so, analysing meaning together with analysing of use.

In line with first inquiry question about the form of new words, I will identify the new words and classify it then interpret.This is in line with Yule (2006:5358) explored word-formation, i.e. etymology, coinage, borrowing, compounding, blending, clipping, backformation, convertion, acronyms, derivation, prefixes and suffixes, infixes, and multiple processes. The result of these processes is new words which Newmark (1988:140) determines that there are types of new words, those are old word with new sense, new coinages, derived words, abbreviations, collocations, eponyms, phrasal words, transferred words, acronyms, pseudo-neologism, and blends. To reach the word-formation of new words in social networking, as Hockett (Soeparno, 2002:122) offered, this research will use item and process (IP) model in its analysis.This model is a model of description used in morphology for the analysis of words. In this approach, the relationships between words are seen as processes of derivation.

Abdul Chaer, “kajian bahasa tanpa mengkaji maknanya adalah sangat ‘sumbang’ sebab pada hakikatnya orang berbahasa untuk menyampaikan makna-makna.” (2007:68). Then, it is well known that the fix meaning only reached through the use of the word. In short, the form, meaning and use is a unity and should be better investigated in a researchat once. Different with analysing formation, in analysing meaning it is significant with word-and-paradigm (WP) model.This model is a morphological model of description which sees the word as the basic unit of analysis, operating within a set of variables which constitute a paradigm (Crystal, 1941: 523). It is just in case this research will use Bloomfield’simmediate constituent (Bloomfield, 1933:161) in analysing meaning.

E. Procedure of Research

This inquiry would be guided by following points; method of research, data resources, data collection methods, and data analysis methods. Each of them will be briefly described as follow.

  1. Method of Research

This qualitative research of new words will be reached on the matter of synchronic approach. The focus investigation of approach is language system, either microlinguistics or macrolinguistics, in a certain period of time; language analysis based on the present. According to Soeparno (2002: 117) the advantage of this approach is objective, and he also stated, it is because the motto is “describe the facts, all the facts, and nothing but the facts”. The result of synchronic approach is linguistic descriptive. So, for instance, this research uses descriptive approach.

This research which focused on morphological process will take generally word-formation to investigated, new words formation/creation. In Linguistics terms, word-formation is defined generally as the creation of a new word. According to Hockett (Soeparno, 2002:122), analysing language especially synchronic research a researcher deals with applying item and process (IP) model. For additional, just in case to anticipate, Bloomfield (1933:161) also introduced immediate constituens (IC) model. So, by using linguistic descriptive approach, the method to investigate in this research is item and process.

  1. Data Resource

In this inquiry the main data will be collected from online world-wide-web which provide the information of new words. There are four main data resource :

  1. http://www.facebook.com (online)
  2. http://www.twitter.com (online)
  3. http://www.myspace.com (online)
  4. http://www.linkedin.com (online)

  1. Technique of Collecting Data

The technique of observation is particularly important in this research. According to Creswell (1994: 149), data collection procedures in qualitative research involve four basic types: observations, interviews, visual images, and documents. In order to collect data, I will observe at first then documents data resources. Collecting will be reached through reading the sources comprehensively.

That technique also used by Oxford and Merriam Webster in collecting data. Catherine Sommes (bbclearningenglish.com 2010) explains :

What we (Oxford) can do – we’ve got software tools that actually show how words are being used, how widely they’re being used, so it’s not just a question of numbers, it’s a question of different places it’s being used so everywhere from magazines, to newspapers to chatrooms… Social networking as well is so huge–so we’re getting words in the dictionary now like de-friend, or un-friend… on a social networking site such as Facebook. We’re seeing lots of words like that come into the language now.

  1. Technique of Analyzing Data

In analyzing data it needs identifying, classifying, interpreting data, and finding conclusion (Troot and Bloomer, 1998: 7-13). For this reason, I will take several steps.

  1. Identification. In this step, I will sorting the words, select the words which have used in social context. It means that in this step there are a kind of election and I have to explore the background of the words.
  2. Interpreting. Finding the word-formation of new words which released in social network sites, and its meaning. In making the analysis is arranged systematic, I will also classify the collected data into either formations or types. In this point, I will base on either Yule’s or Newmark’s.
  3. Conclusion. This last step is finding conclusion to answer the research question demands.

F. Model of Writing

In writing this paper, the writer will make it in five chapters, there are:

Chapter I : Introduction

This chapter will explain about the background of problem. This chapter also consists of problem statements, purpose of study, method, technique, and organization of writing.

Chapter II : Review of Related Literature

This chapter will describe the data resource and the data.

Chapter III : The Methodology of Research

This chapter will explain the approach, method and technique of research. I will describe the steps of the research.

Chapter IV : Finding and Discussion

This chapter provides explanation as analysis product of the data. The explanation is based on problem statements and theories.

Chapter V : Conclusion and Suggestion

This chapter is the answer of the question demand in the research. In this final chapter I will give the view about the main of the research explanation.

REFERENCES

Alwasilah, Chaedar. 2008. Pokoknya Kualitatif, Dasar-dasar Merancang dan Melakukan Penelitian Kualitatif. Jakarta : Dunia Pustaka Jaya

Bloomfield, Leonard. 1958 (Cet. I: 1933). Language. London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd

Chaer, Abdul. 2007. Linguistik Umum. Jakarta : Rineka Cipta

Chaer, Abdul. 2007. Kajian Bahasa, Struktur Internal, Pemakaian, dan Pemelajaran. Jakarta : Rineka Cipta

Creswell, John. 1994. Research Design, Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. USA : Sage Publication

Crystal, David. 1941. A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics. 6th ed. USA : Blackwell Publishing Ltd

Finegan, Edwards. 1997. Language, Its Structure and Use. Australia : Harcout Publisher

Fromkin, Victoria, and Robert Rodman. 1983. An Introduction to Language. New York : Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Gofur, Abdul. 2007. Neologism in J. K. Rowling’s Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secret. Bandung : UIN Sunan Gunung Djati Bandung. Unpublished.

Hartanto, John, etc. 2003. Accurate, Brief and Clear English Grammar. Surabaya : Penerbit Indah Surabaya

Newmark, Peter. 1988. A Text Book of Translation. Great Britain: Prentice Hall

Sciffman. 1996. Language Policy and Linguistic Culture . London and New York : Routledge

Soeparno. 2002. Dasar-Dasar Linguistik Umum. Yogyakarta : Tiara Wacana Yogya

Yule, George. 2006. The Study of Language. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press

Yayat Hidayat. 2003. English Prefixes : History, Forms, and Meaning. Bandung : UIN Sunan Gunung Djati Bandung. Unpublished.

Encyclopedia

Microsoft Encarta 2009

Encyclopedia Britannica 2010

Online Websites

bbc.com

facebook.com

merriam-webster.com


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