Proposal – THE FORMATION OF NEW WORDS IN ENGLISH, SHORTENING AND COMPOUNDING

And among His Signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the variations in your languages and your colours: verily in that are Signs for those who know. (Q.S. The Roman Empire : 22)

A. Background of Research

English language is a language spoken in many countries and used as a language of international communication throughout the world (Oxford, 2007:506). It is spoken as primary language of the majority of people in the United Kingdom, the United States, territories of the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and many other countries with a colonial past (Encarta, 2009). It is also, as the reason of international language, used as the language of technology and diplomacy.

Genealogically, English is classified into Indo-European language group, part of Germanic subfamily and is grouped with its most closely related language, Frisian, as part of the Anglo-Frisian group (Gorys Keraf, 1984:25). This classification is based on the history of English and linguistic history (Soeparno, 2002:30). It is a well known that one of factors of ‘why’ English language has subs, because languages are constantly in a state of change. They were gradual and probably difficult to discern while they were in progress. But, it is clear that language is not static.

The products of language change process are three classifications of English, namely Old English, Middle English and Modern English. Then Modern English also divided into two classification, British English (also called Received Pronunciation, RP) and American English (called General American, GA).

Taking description above, we find comprehension that English has been developed continually since hundreds years ago. That is exact with the theory, languages change in the course of time (Bloomfield, 1933: 13), the process of change is dramatically over a long period of time. None of these processes of change happened overnight, languages change dramatically over a long period. To see how one language has undergone substantial changes through time, we can take a brief look at the history of English (Yule, 2005:186). Especially English, we may begin with taking a look into history which divide English generation into three periods, namely Old English, Middle English and Modern English. So, to recognize the change we can compare the pattern of semantic, syntax, morphology, etc. between one generation and the next.

Semantic change, Ullman (1977:247) wrote meaning may has fastest change, this is caused by many factors such as vocabulary structure, ambiguous context, polysemy, discontinuous, etc. In fact, there are many evidence of semantic change, Finegan (1997:258) gives example, about a thousand years ago, the English verb starve (Old English steorfan) meant simply ‘die (by any cause)’; today, starve refers principally to deprivation and death by hunger (or, by metaphorical extension, ‘deprive off affection’). Finegan gives also other examples, the Old English verb bereafian meant ‘to deprive of, take away, rob’; today, the much narrower principal meaning of bereave is ‘to deprive of life of hope’. Until relatively recently, the 700-year-old adjective natural did not have a meaning ‘without chemical preservatives’ that it now commonly has, as in all-natural ice-cream.

Shakespeare wrote in Macbeth, Goes the king hence today?, then today the same sentiment would have a form more like Is the king going out today?(Finegan, 1997:258) the other written text Know ye this man? known as Do you know this man?. It shows us that the syntactic and morphological characteristics of seventeenth-century English are no longer available to the modern speaker. Schiffman (1996: 9), language change, it is reconstituted and reconstructed by every speaker anew in every generation.

The change also happened in vocabulary. This is the most noticeable differences. What one generation calls icebox, record player, car phone and studious young man, a younger generation calls fridge, stereo, cellular phone and in some instances nerd (Finegan, 1997:257). The Old English knows the words, such as, ham, hafela/heafod, boc, cild, cinn while in the Modern English knows the words home, head, book, child, chin.

Linguistic alteration very often prompt comment, especially from people who feel that language change reflects corruption and is invariably for the worse. For many, the best language forms are those that have stood the test of time. However, languages always change. Finally, it is an evidence that the differences between one generation and another reflects the simple fact that languages are always in the process of changing, that language do not stand still (Finegan, 1997:258) Taking view on the change, morphological process is interesting to investigate. Therefore, this study will explore a topic of morphology, that is new words, in English peculiar. It is accordance with the theory that either the principles or main point after all is new words.

B. Statement of Problem

To restrict in order to focus the research, the inquiry would be guided by the following general question :

  1. When is a word a serious word?

  2. What is in a new word?

  3. How are new words formed?

C. Purpose and Significance of Research

This research attempts to document the new word which produced from morphological process. For that reason, the researcher is generally interested in finding out the formation of new words. This research also addressed to identify, recognizing the new words in English through quest when a words is a serious word; to concept, supporting the theory, of course, both the language change and word-formation through answering the second question ‘what is in a new word’; to validate, proving theory(/ies) that theory(/ies) is(are) applicable and workable.

Based on purpose of research explained above, researcher figure that the significance of this research is this research expected able to contribute especially in morphological analysis. By this research, it can be used for vocabulary building, English mastering and keeping-up-to-date the information about new words in English.

This study also expected as a additional references for those, either student, lecturer, researcher, or whoever, interested in the same subject of morphological analysis especially in word-formation.

 

D. Conceptual Framework

And among His Signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the variations in your languages and your colours: verily in that are Signs for those who know. (Q.S. The Roman Empire : 22)

Language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols used for human communication (Trager (1949); Barber (1964:21); de Saussure (1966:16); Bolinger (1975:15); Wardhaugh (1977:3) in Abdul Chaer (2007:32)). The science of language is linguistics. In the research field, linguistics defined as an empirical science dealing with observed phenomena and grammar deals with particular part of these (Robins, 1968 : 182).

Language reconstituted and reconstructed by every speaker anew in every generation (Sciffman, 1996:9). Therefore languages change in the course of time (Bloomfield, 1933:13) and of course, it happen on all living languages (Fromkin and Rodman, 1974: 499). Given that definition, this research will investigate the formation of new words. To analyse the product of change, in this study is new words, the theory of word-formation is able to be used (Yule, 2006: 52-53).

According to Hockett (Soeparno, 2002:122), analysing language especially synchronic research a researcher deals with applying item and process (IP) model. For additional, just in case to anticipate, Bloomfield (1933:161) also introduced immediate constituens (IC) model. So, by using linguistic descriptive approach, the method to investigate in this research is item and process. On the way of analyse will be shown new words created.

This research which focused on morphological process takes generally word-formation to investigated, new words creation. In Linguistics terms, word-formation is defined generally as the creation of a new word. Then, compounding is a lexeme that consists of more than one stem. Of course, to produce new words by compounding, what we do is put together two words in a perfectly transparent way, and then various changes take place which may cause the compound to lose its transparency (Minkova and Stockwell, 2009 :9).

On analyzing the data, new words in English, researcher will apply several steps. Troot and Bloomer (1998: 7-13) (1) Identification. In this step, researcher will sorting the words, select the words which have probabilty living longer. It means that in this step there are a kinf of election. Then, (2) Classification. The selected words will be classified into several classification (3) Interpreting (or Describing). This step is the last-one step, the data will be described or analyzed. (4) Conclusion. After all, researcher will find out the conclusion as the simple answer.

The steps above, (1) and (2) will explain about the theory of word to answer the inquiry research “When is a word a serious word?” (3) will explain linguist’s point of view about definition and requirement a word to be a serious word. So, of course, this step indirectly answer the inquiry question “What is in a new word?” then the next step (4) will explored the analysis of formation of new words in English peculiar. It clearly undertood that it will answer the last question “How are new words formed?”

E. Procedure of Research

This inquiry would be guided by following points; method of research, data resources, data collection methods, and data analysis methods. Each of them will be briefly described as follow.

  1. Method of Research

This qualitative research of new words in English will be reached on the matter of synchronic approach. The focus investigation of approach is language system, either microlinguistics or macrolinguistics, in a certain period of time; language analysis based on the present. According to Soeparno (2002: 117) the advantage of this approach is objective, and he also states, it is because the motto is “describe the facts, all the facts, and nothing but the facts”. The result of synchronic approach is linguistic descriptive. So, for instance, this research uses descriptive approach.

As outlined in the conceptual framework, researcher will analyze the data using item and process (IA) model. According to Hockett (Soeparno, 2002:123), there are three ways or method of research in analyzing word-formation, one of them is IP model, whereas Bloomfield (1933:161, 167) introduce immediate process (IC) model. This last model, will used just in case.

  1. Data Resource

In this inquiry the main data will be collected from online world-wide-web which provide the information of language development. There are four main data resource, those are :

  1. Oxford English Dictionary
  2. Merriam-Webster
  3. BBC-Online
  4. Online VOA-News
  1. Technique of Collecting Data

What we can do – we’ve got software tools that actually show how words are being used, how widely they’re being used, so it’s not just a question of numbers, it’s a question of different places it’s being used so everywhere from magazines, to newspapers to chatrooms… Social networking as well is so huge–so we’re getting words in the dictionary now like de-friend, or un-friend… on a social networking site such as Facebook. We’re seeing lots of words like that come into the language now. (Catherine Sommes, bbclearningenglish.com 2010)

The technique of observation is particularly important in this research. According to Creswell (1994: 149), data collection procedures in qualitative research involve four basic types: observations, interviews, visual images, and documents. In order to collect data, researcher will observe at first then documents the online world-wide-web which provide the language development, such as on-line Oxford English Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, BBC-Online, or Online VOA-News. Each of them, release new words or at least inform the change or development of derivation words. So, those are main source data. Collecting will be reached by reading the sources comprehensively. The researcher will find out the formation of new words.

  1. Technique of Collecting Data

In analyzing data it needs identifying, classifying, interpreting data, and finding conclusion (Troot and Bloomer, 1998: 7-13). For this reason, researcher will take several steps.

  1. Identification. The first step is identifying the source.
  2. Classification. The second step is classifying the collected data.
  3. Interpreting. This third step is finding the word-formation of new words in English and the meaning change as the impact of new formation.
  4. Describing. The fourth step is describing the ways of forming of new words and the meaning change.
  5. Conclusion. This last step is finding conclusion to answer the research question demands.

F. Model of Writing

In writing this paper, the writer will make it in five chapters, there are:

Chapter I : Introduction

This chapter will explain about the background of problem. This chapter also consists of problem statements, purpose of study, method, technique, and organization of writing.

Chapter II : Review of Object

This chapter will describe the data resource and the data.

Chapter III : The Methodology of Research

This chapter will explain the approach, method and technique of research. The researcher will describe the steps of the research.

Chapter IV : Finding and Discussion

This chapter provides explanation as analysis product of the data. The explanation is based on problem statements and theories.

Chapter V : Conclusion and Suggestion

This chapter is the answer of the question demand in the research. This final chapter is the researcher will give the view about the main of the research explanation.

 

REFERENCES

Alwasilah, Chaedar. 2008. Pokoknya Kualitatif, Dasar-dasar Merancang dan Melakukan Penelitian Kualitatif. Jakarta : Dunia Pustaka Jaya, 1993. Linguistik Suatu Pengantar. Bandung: Angkasa.

Bloomfield, Leonard. 1958 (Cet. I: 1933). Language. London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd

Chaer, Abdul. 2007. Linguistik Umum. Jakarta : Rineka Cipta

________. 2007. Kajian Bahasa, Struktur Internal, Pemakaian, dan Pemelajaran. Jakarta : Rineka Cipta

Creswell, John. 1994. Research Design, Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. USA : Sage Publication

Finegan, Edwards. 1997. Language, Its Structure and Use. Australia : Harcout Publisher

Hartanto, John. 2003. Accurate, Brief and Clear English Grammar. Surabaya : Penerbit Indah Surabaya

Kridalaksana, Harimurti. 2007. Pembentukan Kata dalam Bahasa Indonesia. Jakarta : Gramedia Pustaka Utama

________. 2008. Kamus Linguistik. Jakarta : Gramedia Pustaka Utama

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_______. 1998. Ikhtisar Sejarah Kesusasteraan Inggris. Jakarta : Daya Widya

Sciffman. 1996. Linguistic Culture and Language Policy. London : Routladge

Siahaan, Sanggam. 2008. Issues in Linguistics. Yogyakarta : Graha Ilmu

Soeparno. 2002. Dasar-Dasar Linguistik Umum. Yogyakarta : Tiara Wacana Yogya

Yule, George. 2006. The Study of Language. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press

Fromkin, Victoria, and Robert Rodman. 1983. An Introduction to Language. New York : Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Encyclopedia

Microsoft Encarta 2009

Encyclopedia Britannica 2010

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