Proposal – WORD-FORMATION: ITEM AND PROCESS MODEL OF NEW WORDS IN ENGLISH

A. BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Genealogically, English is classified into Indo-European language group, part of Germanic subfamily and is grouped with its most closely related language, Frisian, as part of the Anglo-Frisian group (Gorys Keraf, 1984:25). This classification is based on the history of English and linguistic history (Soeparno, 2002:30). It is a well known historical fact that all languages are constantly in a state of change. None of these processes of change happened overnight, languages change dramatically over a long period of time. They were gradual and probably difficult to discern while they were in progress. To see how one language has undergone substantial changes through time, we can take a brief look at the history of English (Yule, 2005:186).

Talking English history, according to Samekto (1998:6), around 4th century, Roman emperor troops were forced to withdraw from England and Wales because there are many conflicts both economy and politics in the seat of government, on the other hand, Anglo-Saxon aggression is another reason. Knowing the retreat of Roman, Anglo-Saxon aggression becomes incessant until about 5th century. Roman leaves Britain overall while Anglo-Saxon departure is more and more until Anglo-Saxon establish Germanic kingdom. Britain is under Germanic kingdom administration.

All Rome abandoned Britain destroyed by Germanic. The roads, buildings, parks, etc. are ruined completely. This is important to know that as long as Roman emperor controls Britain, they subjugate only the Celtic speaking country. It means they control only Britons, Cornish, Welsh, Irish, Manx, and Gaels. Then, Roman introduces them the law and customs to them, but language, Roman leaves it to islander. It is not changed until Germanic invasion causing Celtic evacuate themselves.

 

Since the time that Britain is under Germanic kingdom administration Anglo-Saxon sets their culture as formal culture. Therefore, only their custom, law, and language is formal use. Unlike Roman, Germanic not only sets and uses it, but also introduced to the authority in controlled over and at last drives them to be “Germanic”. This policy is important of socializing their culture. Taking this thesis as a point of departure, the base of English language is Germanic language which formerly as Anglo-Saxon.

The Anglo-Saxon language (Old English) is primary language of English until Duke William from Norman conquers Britain, at AD 1066. Then, after control taken well in his hand, William acquaints French language as a formal language while English spoken by Anglo-Saxon lower classes. That is, actually, as evidence that Norman-French language is not the root of English language because Norman nobility is just a few. Nevertheless, this is just the opposite they have to learn English and they did (Hartanto, 2003:362). Although they did, they also introduced into it some words from French language. That is the reason why English language has root from Germanic, but many words are French.

The government runs their duty and the people raise their living. Two hundreds later after victory in Hastings, the condition changed. Anglo-Saxon at this time is not only lower classes, but some of them also succeed to be upper classes. This achievement changes the English language, too. The change is not only its words, but also its structure (grammar); become simpler and easier. At this time, English language is quite different from the native Anglo-Saxon.

During 16th century, English scholar belief that English language must be not enough its glossary, it must be loaned from other language. In consequence, they decide to loan some from Latin and some from Greek. We know that now we find many words almost likely from French language, and at the same time, we find other words having the same meaning loaned from Greek. The development of English language clearly understood its change proceeds.

Today, English language is a language spoken in many countries and used as a language of international communication throughout the world (Oxford, 2007:506). It is spoken as primary language of the majority of people in the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, territories of the United States, and many other countries with a colonial past (Encarta, 2009). It is also, as the reason of international language, used as the language of technology and diplomacy. The other products of language change process are there are two classifications of English, both British English (also called Received Pronunciation, RP) and American English (called General American, GA).

Based on description above, we find comprehension that English language has developed (or been developed) continually since hundreds years ago. That is exact with the theory; languages change in the course of time (Bloomfield, 1958: 13), the process of change is dramatically over a long period of time; it is reconstituted and reconstructed by every speaker anew in every generation (Schiffman, 1996: 9). Given that focused in morphological process, this study will investigate new words in English. It is in accordance with the theory that either the principles or main point after all is new words.

B. PURPOSE TO THE STUDY

This study attempts to document the formation process of new words in English. For that reason, the researcher is generally interested in finding out how the new words are formed, where the root is, and how they are used. In other hand, this study also aimed to identify, recognizing the new words in English; to concept, constructing/supporting the theory; to validate, proving that theories can be judged, useful and acceptable, and working theory.

The inquiry would be guided by the following general question, at least at its initial stages.

  1. How are new words formed? What happens in the process of change known as ‘word-formation’?

  2. What kind of processes are there? What kind of evidence would be used to argue for or against the point of view?

 

 

 

 

C. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

In his book Bloomfield wrote, “Languages change in the course of time.” (1933:13) and is reconstituted and reconstructed by every speaker anew in every generation (Schiffman, 1996: 9). It means that language is creative (Chomsky, 1965). In linguistics, word formation is the creation of a new word. The study of the internal structure of words, and of the rules by which words are formed, is called morphology. The data which taken from online newspaper, magazines and chatroom show the popular trends of new words in English, nowadays context, is shortening. In other hand, any other process also found.

It is accordance with Hockett who explain that analyzing language especially synchronic research a researcher deals with applying item and process (IP) model (Soeparno, 2002:122) and just in case to anticipate, Bloomfield (1933:161) also introduced a method, immediate constituents (IC) model. So, by using linguistic descriptive approach, the methods which chosen in this paper to investigate is item and process.

This research will assumed two categories as result. First, Finegan (1979:157) stated that the purpose of linguistics is to explain precisely how language are structured and used, at this point what researcher can envision is this study will investigate the word-formation processes. Second, Rodman (2002:83) said that the knowledge of morphology includes knowledge of individual morphemes, their pronunciation, and their meaning. In this point, researcher will investigate the meaning of words as impact of the change. The researcher would like to explore about the new words-formation and its meaning change.

In accordance with new words, Yule (2006: 52-53),

“We can very quickly understand a new word in our language (a neologism) and accept the use of different forms of that new word. This ability must derive in part from the fact that there is a lot of regularity in the word-formation processes in our language… we will explore some of the basic processes by which new words are created.”

Given that particular linguistic phenomena, researcher would like proposes a study of new words in English.

 

D. PROCEDURE OF RESEARCH

This inquiry would be guided by following points; method of research, data resources, data collection methods, and data analysis methods. Each of them will be briefly described as follow.

  1. Method of Research

This qualitative research of new words will use synchronic approach. The focus investigation of approach is language system, either microlinguistics or macrolinguistics, in a certain period of time; language analysis based on the present. According to Soeparno (2002: 117) the advantage of this approach is objective, and he also said, because the motto is “describe the facts, all the facts, and nothing but the facts”. The result of synchronic approach is descriptive linguistic. So, for instance, this research uses descriptive approach.

As outlined in the conceptual framework, researcher will be using item and process (IA) model. According to Hockett (Soeparno, 2002:123), there are three ways or method of research in analyzing word-formation, one of them is IP model, whereas Bloomfield (1933:161, 167) introduce immediate process (IC) model.

  1. Data Collection Methods

What we can do – we’ve got software tools that actually show how words are being used, how widely they’re being used, so it’s not just a question of numbers, it’s a question of different places it’s being used so everywhere from magazines, to newspapers to chatrooms… Social networking as well is so huge–so we’re getting words in the dictionary now like de-friend, or un-friend… on a social networking site such as Facebook. We’re seeing lots of words like that come into the language now. (Catherine Sommes, bbclearningenglish.com 2010)

The technique of observation is particularly important in this research. According to Creswell (1994: 149), data collection procedures in qualitative research involve four basic types: observations, interviews, visual images, and documents. In order to collect data, researcher will documents world-wide-web, either on-line magazine, newspaper or chatroom, which talk about new words in English or other sources have correlation with the research, either theory, methodology, or problems. Collecting will be realized by reading the sources comprehensively. The researcher will find out the formation of new words.

  1. Data Analysis Methods

In analyzing data it needs identifying, classifying, interpreting data, and finding conclusion (Troot and Bloomer, 1998: 7-13). For this reason, researcher will take several steps.

  1. Identification. The first step is identifying the source.

  2. Classification. The second step is classifying the collected data.

  3. Interpreting. This third step is finding the word-formation of new words in English and the meaning change as the impact of new formation.

  4. Describing. The fourth step is describing the ways of forming of new words and the meaning change.

  5. Conclusion. This last step is finding conclusion to answer the research question demands.

 

REFERENCES

 

Alwasilah, Chaedar. 2008. Pokoknya Kualitatif, Dasar-dasar Merancang dan Melakukan Penelitian Kualitatif. Jakarta : Dunia Pustaka Jaya

Bloomfield, Leonard. 1958 (Cet. I: 1933). Language. London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd

Chaer, Abdul. 2007. Linguistik Umum. Jakarta : Rineka Cipta

________. 2007. Kajian Bahasa, Struktur Internal, Pemakaian, dan Pemelajaran. Jakarta : Rineka Cipta

Chomsky, Noam. 1965. Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press

Creswell, John. 1994. Research Design, Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. USA : Sage Publication

Finegan, Edwards. 1997. Language, Its Structure and Use. Australia : Harcout Publisher

Hartanto, John. 2003. Accurate, Brief and Clear English Grammar. Surabaya : Penerbit Indah Surabaya

Keraf, Gorys. 1984. Linguistik Bandingan Historis. Jakarta : PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama

Kridalaksana, Harimurti. 2007. Pembentukan Kata dalam Bahasa Indonesia. Jakarta : Gramedia Pustaka Utama

________. 2008. Kamus Linguistik. Jakarta : Gramedia Pustaka Utama

Pateda, Mansoer. 1988. Linguistik, Sebuah Pengantar. Bandung: Angkasa

Rodman. 2002.

Schiffman. 1996.

Samekto. 1998. Ikhtisar Sejarah Bangsa Inggris. Jakarta : Daya Widya

_______. 1998. Ikhtisar Sejarah Kesusasteraan Inggris. Jakarta : Daya Widya

Siahaan, Sanggam. 2008. Issues in Linguistics. Yogyakarta : Graha Ilmu

Soeparno. 2002. Dasar-Dasar Linguistik Umum. Yogyakarta : Tiara Wacana Yogya

Troot and Bloomer. 1998

Yule, George. 2005. The Study of Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Encyclopedia

Microsoft Encarta 2009

Encyclopedia Britannica 2010

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